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Rainwater Management

1.Name of Technology:In-situ Moisture Conservation technology for maximum infiltration, rainwater use efficiency and profitability in groundnut based cropping system for semiarid vertisols in Western India

Technology Description: The technology includes package of efficient tillage practices like shallow ploughing, deep ploughing every year, deep ploughing alternate years and deep ploughing once in every 3years on long term experiments. The maximum benefits of infiltration up to 12.8cm and rainwater use efficiency of 1.59 kg/h/mm were obtained. This technology resulted in maximum gross returns of Rs 22,661/Ha with benefit cost ratio of 1.53 and sustainable yield index of 25.6-30.9% based on cumulative rainfall for attending maximum Groundnut pod yield and 38-44.8% for Straw yield. This technology was adopted by the dryland farmers in the Western India.

2.Name of Technology:In-situ Water Conservation technology for upland paddy fields in northwest Himalayan region of India.

Technology Description: It includes construction of small size trenches in the terraces constructed across the slope in hilly region ,it is recommended that the trench area should not be more than 12-17% of the terrace area cultivated in the paddy .The trenches having the capacity ranging from 9.9-23.1 m3 were tested in the terraces where upland paddy was cultivated and found that the trenches having 12-17% of the terrace area performed better having average soil moisture with higher yields varying from 58.4-63.6 % .The economic analysis indicated that the technology was beneficial with DC ratio of 2.14 with net present value of Rs 1.63 Lakhs with the payback period < 2years.

3.Name of Technology: Solar powered micro irrigation system suitable to the farm pond as water source for irrigating small areas under vegetables in drylands.

Technology Description: Small water harvesting ponds are crucial to sustain productivity by providing supplemental/lifesaving irrigation in the small holdings of Indian dryland agriculture. Applications of such water however, are always a major issue in these regions, since efficient and cost-effective pumping system is generally not available. In order to achieve the holistic utilization of water resources, a gravity-fed type micro irrigation system integrated with low cost solar based pumping system was designed. The system was designed considering the properties of flow characteristics derived from hydraulic study of different components of drip irrigation system. The system thus developed, has the capability to provide uniform emitter discharge over the small plot of 18m×6m. The star configuration of micro-tube layout where the lateral line feed four rows was successfully integrated in the developed irrigation system. The field experimentation and testing suggested that the system performance was found satisfactory as the flow rate variation, Christiansen uniformity coefficient and distribution uniformity were 18.96%, 93.65% and 91.55% respectively.

4.Name of Technology: Rainwater harvesting through On Farm Reservoirs(OFR) and use management through efficient water application system for Semi Arid Tropics.

Technology Description: A long term study was done to assess the impact of on farm reservoirs (OFR) on oil seed and cereal based cropping systems with vegetables (okra, tomato and carrot) in semi-arid alfisol of southern Telangana region. Two supplemental irrigation (SI) depths (30 and 50 mm) from OFR with raingun system were studied for assessing the water productivity and profitability of the technology in these cropping systems. Cropping system using sole crop of groundnut or maize, later was found to be more profitable (3 times) with 50 mm SI in 2 critical growth stages having annualized net benefit (ANB) of $ 971 - 998 / ha and economic productivity (EP) of 31 Cents / m3 under different capacities of OFR (500-1500m3). In rainy season with single filling of OFR and deficit irrigation of 30 mm SI, maize+tomato was found to be more profitable (ANB: $ 1659 - 2325 / ha and EP: 37 - 51 Cents / m3) as compared to sole crop or with okra. During rainy season and post-rainy season with second filling of OFR at SI depth of 30 mm, maize+tomato+carrot was the most profitable option (ANB: $ 2544 - 3012 / ha and EP: 37 - 45 Cents/ m3) as compared to any other combination of the crops. The study revealed that the best economical crop combination under deficit irrigation of 30 mm will make the rainfed agriculture more remunerative with OFR technology with efficient use of surface water.

5.Name of Technology: Farm Pond based Integrated Farming System Focus area.

Technology Description: During kharif, significant area of Shri Chhatrapal Pateria farm remained fallow due to water logging while field crops are affected by early, mid and late drought during the monsoon or excess rainfall. He constructed farm pond in low lying area of his farm for harvesting rain water and adopted integrated arming system module involving components such as crop production + vegetable production + dairy + fisheries + composting and bio gas. Fish fingerlings of catla, rohu, mrigal and grass carp were introduced in pond. Vegetables such as chilli, tomato and brinjal were also grown for vegetable production. Waste from livestock was used for compost making with NADEP and also used in biogas production. Slurry produced from biogas was used in fish culture.

6.Name of Technology: Efficient use of Irrigation Water Improved Returns in Drought Prone Areas.

Technology Description: Shri Selvaraj used to cultivate only 2 acres of land and the remaining land was left fallow as his bore well was not functional throughout the year. After the renovation of near by Aaiyiramkuttai community pond, he is cultivating crops like onion, fodder crops, maize, groundnut, green gram, cucurbitaceous vegetables, annual moringa etc., and now he extended the cultivated area to 5 acres. He adopted sprinkler irrigation method for fodder (CoFs-29, red sorghum, Bajra Napier), groundnut and onion cultivation. He reported more than 30% water has been saved when compared to flood irrigation. Foliar spray of PPFM (Pink Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophs) was used in his onion field @ 10 days interval. Semi spreading medium duration (120-130 day) Groundnut var. Co-6 was adopted which can withstand drought condition.He has adopted short duration green gram cultivars so as to maximize production from the limited water.

7.Name of Technology: Diversified Crop Production from Harvested Rain Water.

Technology Description: Shri Kuldeep Singh Parmar an innovative farmer substituted crops like maize and wheat with vegetables. Crop diversification with vegetables especially cucurbits, cole crops as well as adopting ridge and furrow technology of cultivation and biomass mulching enabled him to realize additional income from vegetable cultivation. He utilized harvested rainwater in his farm having an area of 0.4ha. He used vermicompost @ 8-10 q /0.08 ha in two split doses at six months interval. He is getting an additional income and quality produce as compared to other farmers of adjoining areas who apply heavy doses of fertilizers. Cabbage and cauliflower are transplanted at a distance of 45 cm x 30 cm. Bitter gourd and bottle gourd are transplanted in rows at a distance of 3.0 m and plant to plant distance is maintained at 1.0 m in the furrows. Cucumber is transplanted at a distance of 2 m x 75 cm in furrows under ridge and furrow system of cultivation. Seeds of okra are sown at a distance of 45 x 20 cm during summer and 60 x 30 cm during rainy season. Pheromone traps ‘Palam traps’ for fruit fly are kept @ 25 traps/ha and refilled at every 45 days interval.

8.Name of Technology: Cultivation of Vegetables under Ridge and Furrow Method in Flood Prone Regions.

Technology Description:b Shri Vada Laxman Rao has taken up cultivation of vegetables with ridge and furrow method which reduce damage due to inundation and also acts as in-situ moisture conservation practice. He has also taken up zero till maize cultivation after paddy. He has observed reduction in the number of tillage operations and also reduction in number of irrigations due to zero tillage. With ridge and furrow method, plant mortality reduced due to reduction in the duration of water stagnation. Crop yield increased by 19%. Due to the higher market price, farmers are interested to grow maize instead of blackgram with zero till method and the net returns are more when compared to blackgram in rice fallows. Cropping intensity can be increased with available water with this technology.

9.Name of Technology: Cultivation of Groundnut in Raised Bed Technique.

Technology Description: The traditional practice of cultivating groundnut on flat bed is not remunerative as conservation of rain water during scanty rains and disposal of excess water during heavy rains is not possible. Shri R.K Venkataravanappa a marginal famer from S. Raghuttahalli, Chikkaballapura district started cultivating groundnut on raised bed. In this raised bed practice, ploughing twice with tractor drawn MB plough was done followed by formation of three meters width raised beds across the slope and 0.3 meter furrow is opened in between the raised beds which conserves water. Seeds of groundnut were sown at 30 cm x 15 cm spacing using a seed rate of 100 kg/ha. Zinc and Boron were applied at 10 and 5kg /ha, respectively, as basal besides normaldose of NPK. In case of existing practice (flat bet), ploughing twice with tractor drawn MB plough followed by leveling is done and higher seed rate of 10 kg/ha over that of raised bed is needed. He also experienced ease in harvesting, good filling of pods and improved shelling percentage in raised bed technique.

10.Name of Technology: Community-approach for Soil and Water Conservation.

Technology Description: Soil and water conservation programme is highly essential for the village in Bhalot, a village in Kutch region which receives a rainfall of just 350 mm. Agricultural land of the village is highly undulating.Hence, it requires land leveling and bunding as per contour lines. This required significant resources which is difficult for small farmers. Shri Karshan Bijal Chavda contacted different NGOs and government departments for the development of his village. As a result of his efforts NGOs - World Vision adopted this village and completed eight check dams, two water reservoirs and farm bunding and leveling in 40 ha land. Organizations like AKRSP (Agakhan Rural Support Programme), IFFCO, DWDU Project started their programmes in this village. He himself installed micro-irrigation systems in three ha land and started efficient use of irrigation water. Looking to the benefits of micro-irrigation systems, other farmers also started adoption of micro-irrigation systems (MIS). The innovation is the collective approach for conservation and involving communities in water conservation efforts in the village.

11.Name of Technology: Bunding and Leveling for improving Productivity from Degraded Lands.

Technology Description: Shri Bakkiyaraj a small farmer of Kattusiviri village owning 2.5 ha of cultivable land. He is cultivating groundnut and blackgram. Out of his 2.5 ha of wetland one ha are is undulating and having steep slope. He had no hope to cultivate the crops in uneven sloping land. He ploughed the uneven land to start crop cultivation but failed due to high soil erosion and runoff. Finally, he decided to follow innovative agricultural practices to make use of undulating land for paddy cultivation. He divided the slope into strips based on the land topography. The strips of land were leveled and bunds were raised to make boundaries and rice was grown. When it rained, instead of runoff, the rainwater got stored in the strips. The bunds made in between the land prevented free flowing of water. Thus, the uneven sloping land was transformed as suitable wetland for paddy cultivation by Shri Bakkiyaraj although, it is commonly practiced in hilly regions.

12.Name of Technology: Broad Bed Furrow Method of Sowing for Soybean.

Technology Description: Shri Kaluram Patidar is growing soybean crop variety JS-335 under broad bed furrow (BBF) method of planting and adopted better crop management as per the recommended package of practices. In this practice, the farmer is using lesser seed rate of 50 kg/ha with plant to plant distance of 5 cm, row to row distance of 37 cm and width of furrow of 35 cm as compared to higher seed rate of 70 kg/ha, lesser row to row distance of 30 cm under the old age practice of flat-bed of sowing. This land treatment worked towards moisture conservation during lesser rainfall condition and drained out excess rainwater in case of high intensity rains. Shri Kaluram Patidar has recorded 20 to 25% of higher yield under broad bed furrow method of sowing than the old age practice of flat bed sowing.

13.Name of Technology: Recharge of wells to improve shallow aquifers.

Technology Description: Climate change pertains to increase in atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO ) and global warming. Present day atmospheric CO level hovers around 397 ppm 2 which is a significant increase over the pre-industrial level of 280 ppm. It is anticipated that the concentration level will double by the end of this century (IPCC, 2007). A consequence of increased green house gas (GHG) emissions is the entrapment of heat within the earth's atmosphere leading to an alarming rate of global warming. Global average increase in mean annual temperatures is estimated at 0.8°C till now. An increasing rate of warming has taken place across sampling areas spread across the globe over the last 25 years. For example 11 of the 12 warmest years on record have occurred in the 1996-2005 period (IPCC, 2007). Global mean temperatures are likely to witness significant increase towards the end of this century. Between seasons, warming in the rainy season will be less pronounced than in the winter months in India (IMD, 2010). Another climate change feature significantly influencing agroecosystems is the change in seasonal rainfall patterns. Increased frequency in occurrence of extreme weather events such as cyclones, heat wave, cold wave, frost and hail storm over short periods exert adverse influence on crop performance. Rainfall is predicted to be highly erratic with fewer rainy days but with greater intensity. A combination of higher average annual temperatures and water stress (excess or deficit) can have serious implications for crop production in the tropics. The frequency of occurrence of extreme weather events such as tropical cyclones and heat waves is on the rise (NATCOM, 2004; IPCC, 2007) and compounds the adverse effects on agriculture. Farmers need to intelligently adapt to the changing climate in order to sustain crop yields and farm income. Enhancing resilience of agriculture to climate risk is of paramount importance for protecting livelihoods of small and marginal farmers. Traditionally, technology transfer in agriculture has aimed at enhancing farm productivity. However, in the context of climate change and variability, farmers need to adapt quickly to enhance their resilience to increasing threats of climatic variability such as droughts, floods and other extreme climatic events. Over the years, an array of practices and technologies have been developed by researchers towards fostering stability in agricultural production against the onslaught of seasonal variations. Adoption of such resilient practices and technologies by farmers appears to be more a necessity than an option. Therefore, a reorientation in technology transfer approach is necessary. Efficiency in resource-use, environmental and social safeguards, sustainability and long-term development of agriculture assume greater importance. Participatory on-farm demonstration of site-specific technologies will go a long way in enabling farmers cope with current climate variability. Such an approach can ensure adaptation gains and immediate benefits to farmers along with possible reduction in GHG emissions and global warming potential of agriculture. 2 1 Technology demonstrations under the National Initiative on Climat.

14.Name of Technology: Enhancing resilience through improvement in conveyance efficiency.

Technology Description: Aahar' in Majhilla village of Nawada district was filled with silt and was unable to store enough rainwater and recharge other wells in the village. As a result, the village suffered from acute water shortage both for human and livestock uses during summer. This also resulted in poor productivity of paddy, the major crop of this area which depends mostly on groundwater for irrigation. Renovation of Aahar (water reservoir) and construction of farm ponds were taken up in the village. Similarly, NICRA village Matsyapuri in West Godavari district (Andhra Pradesh) receives an average annual rainfall of 1185 mm with frequent floods which submerge croplands resulting in crop failure. There are two irrigation channels, namely Mentepudi channel and VWS channel which are the major irrigation water source covering 640 ha (Mentepudi channel 400 ha and VWS channel 240 ha). Rice is the major crop cultivated in this village by 300 farmers. Over the years, these channels became nearly defunct due to silting and wild growth resulting in reduced capacity to supply irrigation water to tail end areas in the village. It also led to flooding of nearby fields during monsoon. Renovation and deepening of these two irrigation channels was taken up under NICRAproject during 2012-13.

15.Name of Technology: Rainwater harvesting and recycling through temporary check dam.

Technology Description: Rainwater harvesting and recycling was demonstrated by construction of temporary check dams. The villagers contributed labour through shramdaan. • Temporary check dams were constructed by using low cost gunny bags. These bags were filled with sand from stream beds. The sand filled bags were placed one above the other in two or more rows. The gap between two rows was filled with clay to check water leakage. An outlet was provided to each dam to allow excess water to flow downstream. • These check dam helps in ground water recharge and rising of water table in the area. • Harvested water in the temporary check dams is used for life saving irrigation in rabi and summer crops. Several temporary check dams were constructed using cement bags in which sand/soil was filled by villagers. Most of the dams were constructed in the river basins. Low cost temporary check dams (sand bag check dams) were demonstrated at Gumla, East Singhbhum, Nandurbar, Ratnagiri, Dantewada, Datia and Kendrapara. At Gunia village, Gumla district, Jharkhand, the vulnerability of the farmers to the current climate variability is very high, as they are able to cultivate only one crop in kharif season which also faces intermittent dry spells. The cropping intensity is also low because of non availability of water for cultivation of crops during post rainy season.

16.Name of Technology: Check dam - storing excess-runoff in streams.

Technology Description: Ex-situ storage of water in seasonal streams at suitable sites is an important strategy to conserve excess runoff water in different rainfall zones. Often, by virtue of the location with reference to nearby hilly areas, the village may receive copious amounts of surface runoff from surrounding areas. This excess runoff could be harvested on streams either for direct use or for improving the ground water availability. In high rainfall areas, though runoff availability is high, often it gets lost due to non-availability of storage structures. In these regions, on-stream storage structures could be built on first order streams to make water available for direct use during long dry spells by farmers. In majority of NICRA villages, check dams (new/desilting of existing ones) were major interventions in drought prone districts in different rainfall zones. Jalgaon village in Baramati, does not have much runoff from agricultural fields as the rainfall is 550 mm. The village survey indicated two major streams surrounding the village indicating surface inflows from upper catchment areas. Six structures constructed on the streams were not sufficiently catering to the needs due to siltation. One of the major activities carried out over two years is to completely desilt these structures. Similarly, five new check dams were constructed in the D. Nagenahalli village of Tumkur 3 district, Karnataka. The total water storage capacity increased to 5300 m . Eleven farmers got benefited from this intervention. Apart from this, eight check dams were desilted and 3 widened with additional water storage capacity of 12000 m.

17.Name of Technology: Jalkund - low cost rainwater harvesting structures.

Technology Description:b At Dhansiripar village, Dimapur, all the 15 Jalkunds are in good condition and the farmers are happy with the technology as they can harvest 30,000 liters of water for use during dry season for their kitchen gardens and as a source of drinking water for livestock. At Nandok village, in East Sikkim, Jalkund was developed on a hilltop for accumulating run-off water. This technology of water harvesting is gaining popularity in the village. About 25 Jalkunds of size 5 x 4 x 1.5 m (capacity of 30,000 l/Jalkund) were constructed in the village. Farmers have started cultivating winter crops in a larger area through rainwater harvesting and utilization.